Maps

World map

A map is a detailed representation of a particular part of the world or a region of a particular country of the world.

What is a Map?

  • The Map is a three dimensional depiction of earth on a two dimensional plane.
  • It is made by the using different kinds of map projections.
  • World Maps are tools which provide us with varied world maps for any region of the globe and capture our world in different groups like travel maps, oceans, mountains, continents, country boundaries and many other theme maps.


Why and how Map is important?

  • A map presents the physical features of a particular region of the earth on a plane surface.
  • Maps come with various symbols and signs related to the geographical and physical features. A globe can be called as a duplicate earth. It is round in shape and shows accurate areas, distances, directions and relative shape and size.
  • There are also various types of maps like geographical, physical, weather, tourism and transportation maps to name a few.
  • Examples of descriptions on maps include land routes such as rail routes and road routes.
  • Sometimes there would be representations of specific kingdoms and empires on maps. A globe does not carry these representations.

History of Maps

  • Since Ptolemy, knowledge of the approximate size of the globe allowed cartographers to estimate the extent of their geographical knowledge, and to indicate parts of the globe known to exist but not yet explored as terra incognita.
  • With the Age of Discovery, during the 15th to 18th centuries, world maps became increasingly accurate; exploration of Antarctica and the interior of Africa was left to the 19th and early 20th century.

How to read a Map?

We can read a map by using the following methods…

Colors 

  • Cartographers utilize color on a map to represent certain features. Color use is often consistent across different types of maps by different cartographers or publishers.
  • Blue – Lakes, rivers, streams, oceans, reservoirs, highways, local borders.
  • Red – Major highways, roads, urban areas, airports, special interest sites, military sites, place names, buildings, borders.
  • Black – Roads, railroads, highways, bridges, place names, buildings, borders
  • White – Highest elevations
  • Green – Parks, golf courses, reservations, forest, orchards, highways
  • Yellow – Built-up or urban areas
  • Brown – Deserts, historical sites, national parks, military reservations or bases, contour (elevation) lines

Compass

  • Align the edge of the compass with the starting and finishing point.
  • Rotate the compass housing until the orienting arrow and lines point N on the map.
  • Rotate the map and compass together until the red end of the compass needle points north.
  • Follow the direction of travel arrow on the compass, keeping the needle aligned with the orienting arrow on the housing

Legend

  • Orienteering maps use the International Orienteering Federation’s standard mapping symbols to describe the details on the map. This information can be found in the map’s legend, as in the sample to the right

Difference between Map and Globe

  •  A map is a flat drawing of the earth, while a globe is a representation of the actual shape of the earth.

Types of Maps

  1. Atlas
  2. Climate Map
  3. Weather Map
  4. World Map
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